In ancient times, people were the center of the world, the entire Universe was created and spun around them.
Science has turned us into insignificant grains of sand, lost in the vastness of the Cosmos. However, in recent years, these two completely different images of the world, in a peculiar way have merged together into one concept, bearing the name “the anthropic principle.”
On the day of his death, May 24th 1543, crushed from paralysis, Nicolaus Copernicus, sees for the first time the published composition of his work – „On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies.” With this book begins the exile of the human race from the center of the world, where the Earth relinquishes its place to the Sun.
After half a century, the great thinker, Giordano Bruno, questioned the central location of the Sun and to his death he put fear in the society with his ideas of multiple orbiting worlds.
And now, 400 years later, we are living on the third of the eight planets near an ordinary star in the outskirts of a huge galaxy. 400 billion stars exist in it, and much more are in the other galaxies around it, and that’s just a small part of the entire Universe.
If we are to choose a random point in the Universe, we will most likely end up somewhere in the intergalactic space where there are no stars, no planets, only incredibly diluted gas – several atoms per cubic meter.
A large part of the Universe is utterly incapable of supporting life, so the place of our habitat is far from ordinary. But there is the strong anthropic principle: „The Universe must be the way it is, so at one point in time it could allow for an observer.”
Many hear in the word “must” a statement for some purpose for the existence of the Universe, and with this the formulation acquires a metaphysical meaning, some might even call it religious: “The Universe was created for the people, and that means that one, despite his humble size, is pertinent for the enormous Cosmos.”
In 1919, German mathematician, Herman Weyl calculated that the strength of the electric interaction between the proton and electron in the hydrogen atom is 39 units (meaning 1039 times) stronger than that of their gravitational pull. This is a colossal value.
Why is there such a huge difference between the fundamental powers, pulling together two simple particles? Aren’t the outside formulas of the gravitational and electrostatic interaction very similar? It was clear that this correlation defines the differences in the scales of the micro and macro Cosmos. But why is it exactly that size, and not 1015 or 1075, for example? This question remains without an answer.
During the 30’s, physicist Hans Bethe, who had immigrated to America, came up with a theory about the thermonuclear sources of energy for stars. According to his theory, the reserves with hydrogen-based fuel of the sun-like stars are enough for several billion years – a unthinkable value back then.
English physicist, Paul Dirac, compares this largest interval of time, that can be found in science with the smallest (at this moment 10-24 seconds), which is necessary for light to travel a distance equal to the size of the proton. The ratio again is 1039. Is this really just a coincidence?
If it is proven, for example, that gravitation is stronger and the speed of light is smaller, those correlations would change and our development would become impossible.
Did the Creator Have a Choice?
In recent years, physical phenomena have been discovered, deviating from predictions of the Standard model. This makes physicists search hard for a new unified theory of everything, and among the main contester of the competition is a mathematical construction, called string theory.
All simple particles in this theory are presented not with points, but rather small tightened meshes – strings billions and billions of times smaller than the atomic core. These strings are always vibrating, and that happens not in three, but in 10 space dimensions, where they have different ways of oscillating.
Due to the extremely small size of the strings, we do not see their elaborate curves, but every single type of their oscillation is related to a certain number of properties of the simple particles – mass, charge, spin and so on.
It is common knowledge that our space has three dimensions. And this fundamental constant is also impeccably “fine-tuned” – only in a three-dimensional space can atoms and planetary systems survive, whereas in another number of dimensions they will inevitably get destroyed.
It appears that, our Universe is especially created for the existence of intelligent creatures in it, though that could not be confirmed unless we evolve our understanding of the Universe and its nature.